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Timelines



2001

Bush Inauguration

January 20, 2001

George W. Bush is sworn in as the 43rd president of the United States after the closest election in American history, which was eventually decided by the Supreme Court.1 Bush wins the presidency after a controversial recount and despite losing the popular vote to Democratic nominee Al Gore.2


9/11

September 11, 2001

Nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists hijack four airplanes and purposely crash two into the World Trade Center in New York and one into the Pentagon outside Washington, D.C. After the final plane turns toward Washington, some of the crew members and passengers attempt to retake control; the plane crashes near Shanksville, Pa. Almost 3,000 people die in the worst terrorist attack on U.S. soil.3


Afghan War Begins

October 7, 2001

In retaliation for the September 11 attacks, the United States and a coalition force launch Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, which, under Taliban control, had provided a safe haven for Osama bin Laden while he and other al-Qaeda leaders plotted attacks against the Western world. President Bush declares a war on terrorism and vows to hold states responsible for harboring terrorist organizations.4


DHS Established

October 8, 2001

The Office of Homeland Security, later to become the Department of Homeland Security, is established.


Patriot Act

October 26, 2001

President Bush signs into law the USA Patriot Act, which greatly expands domestic law enforcement capacity to conduct surveillance and wiretaps, increases presidential powers during a terrorist attack and tightens federal oversight of financial activities. Concerns soon arise over restriction of civil liberties.


Iraqi Links

November 8, 2001

The New York Times and the PBS program “Frontline” report that an Iraqi defector, an army general, claims that the Iraqi military trained Arab fighters to hijack airplanes. These claims could not be substantiated and one of the defectors is later exposed by Mother Jones to be using a false identity.


John Walker Lindh

November 25, 2001

Related Video: John Walker Lindh

American citizen-turned-Taliban-soldier John Walker Lindh is captured in Afghanistan.5


Saddam is "Evil"

December 3, 2001

Bush states in an interview with Newsweek that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is “evil.”


New Afghan Government

December 5, 2001

An interim government is put in place in Afghanistan.


Kandahar Falls

December 9, 2001

The Taliban surrender the city of Kandahar and effectively collapse. Al-Qaeda leaders continue to hide out in the mountains, however, and bin Laden is tracked to the Tora Bora caves.


Bin Laden Escapes

December 16, 2001

After a two-week assault on the caves led by Afghan soldiers, Bin Laden escapes.


WMD Links

December 20, 2001

Judith Miller reports in The New York Times that an Iraqi defector claimed that Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction. “An Iraqi defector who described himself as a civil engineer said he personally worked on renovations of secret facilities for biological, chemical and nuclear weapons in underground wells, private villas and under the Saddam Hussein Hospital in Baghdad as recently as a year ago.”6 The defector, Adnan Ihsan Saeed al Haideri, was considered unreliable by the CIA and had failed a CIA polygraph test.


2002

Guantanamo Prisoners

January 18, 2002

President Bush refuses to give prisoner of war protection to terror detainees being held at the U.S. detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.


Daniel Pearl Kidnapped

January 23, 2002

Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl is kidnapped in Karachi, Pakistan. Nine days later, he is decapitated.


"Axis of Evil"

January 29, 2002

In his State of the Union address, President Bush describes Iraq, Iran and North Korea as the “axis of evil.”7


Niger Report

March 1, 2002

The State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research publishes a report entitled, “Niger: Sale of Uranium to Iraq Is Unlikely.” This agrees with the findings of former ambassador Joe Wilson that a supposed memorandum of understanding between Niger and Iraq showing a sale of yellowcake uranium to Iraq does not exist.


Dick Cheney Speech

August 26, 2002

In a speech in Nashville, Vice President Dick Cheney declares “there is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction.”8


Aluminum Tubes

September 8, 2002

Judith Miller and Michael Gordon report in The New York Times that “Iraq has sought to buy thousands of specially designed aluminum tubes, which American officials believe were intended as components of centrifuges to enrich uranium. … The diameter, thickness and other technical specifications of the aluminum tubes had persuaded American intelligence experts that they were meant for Iraq's nuclear program. …”9 This information was seriously doubted by experts inside the federal government; many believed it was inaccurate and that the tubes were more likely intended for small artillery rockets.


Saddam and Bin Laden

September 25, 2002

President Bush declares, “You can’t distinguish between al-Qaeda and Saddam Hussein when you talk about the war on terror.” This link is questioned by many experts who point out that as a secularist, Saddam would be hated and considered an infidel by bin Laden and al-Qaeda.10


War Doubts

October 4, 2002

Related Video: The Art of Manipulation

Citing senior Bush administration officials, Jonathan Landay reports that many intelligence experts have doubts over the administration’s justifications for war with Iraq. “The White House and the Pentagon, these officials said, are pressuring intelligence analysts to highlight information that supports Bush’s Iraq policy and suppress information and analysis that might undercut congressional, public or international support for war.” The article is written for Knight-Ridder newspapers and is not widely publicized.11


9/11 Commision

November 27, 2002

 The 9/11 Commission is established by Congress. The mandate of the bipartisan panel is to prepare an account of the Sept. 11 attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks, and to make recommendations to prevent future attacks.


Extraordinary Rendition

December 26, 2002

Related Video: National Security Concerns

Dana Priest and Barton Gellman report in The Washington Post on the abuse of prisoners suspected of being al-Qaeda operatives or Taliban commanders. The article quotes Cofer Black, then head of the CIA Counterterrorist Center, “There was a before 9/11, and there was an after 9/11. … After 9/11 the gloves come off.” The article also describes the practice of “extraordinary rendition” in which terrorism suspects are handed over to foreign intelligence services where they have no access to the legal process. An official states to the newspaper, “We don’t kick the (expletive) out of them. We send them to other countries so they can kick the (expletive) out of them.”12


2003

Uranium from Africa

January 28, 2003

In his State of the Union address, President Bush states, “the British government has learned that Saddam Hussein recently sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa.”13 This claim had already been proved false or at the least extremely exaggerated by both intelligence agencies and former ambassador Joe Wilson, who had personally investigated it.


UN Speech

February 5, 2003

In an attempt to garner international support, Secretary of State Colin Powell delivers a passionate speech to the United Nations in which he declares that Saddam has biological weapons and desires to produce nuclear weapons. Powell states that al-Qaeda “continues to have a deep interest in acquiring weapons of mass destruction. As with the story of Zarqawi [Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, a terrorist leader later killed in a U.S. bombing attack] and his network, I can trace the story of a senior terrorist operative telling how Iraq provided training in these weapons” to al-Qaeda.14 Many of Powell’s claims rely heavily on statements made by Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, an al-Qaeda operative captured by American forces. However, a year earlier, a Defense Intelligence Agency report declared that it was probable that al-Libi “was intentionally misleading the debriefers.”15 Powell also described mobile chemical weapons labs, basing his description on accounts from a CIA informant, Rafid Ahmed Alwan al-Janabi, known until recently only by the code name “Curveball.” Eight years later al-Janabi admits to the Guardian and in a “60 Minutes” interview that he fabricated his story.16


Patriot II Act

February 7, 2003

The Center for Public Integrity obtains and posts online a secret, draft copy of legislation being quietly developed within the Justice Department – the Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003, also known as the Patriot II Act – and some Americans worry that the government is using the guise of antiterrorism to infringe on personal freedoms.17


No Bid Contract

March 1, 2003

The defense contractor Kellogg, Brown and Root (KBR), then a subsidiary of Halliburton, which had been formerly led by Dick Cheney, is awarded a no-bid contract to fight oil well fires and make emergency repairs. It is later revealed that Halliburton’s role was much broader and that the contract could yield close to a billion dollars. The contract is apparently awarded in March but may have been agreed to as early as October 2002.22


No Resolution

March 17, 2003

The U.S., along with the U.K. and Spain, announce that they will not try to take a resolution authorizing the use of force on Iraq to a vote in the U.N. Security Council. They instead reserve the right to act on their own.18


"Dubious Allegations"

March 18, 2003

Related Video: Enablers of War

The day before the U.S. invades Iraq, an article titled, “Bush Clings to Dubious Allegations about Iraq,” by Walter Pincus and Dana Milbank, runs in The Washington Post on page A13.19


Iraq War Begins

March 19, 2003

Related Video: A Consequential Presidency

In an undertaking named Operation Iraqi Freedom, the United States invades Iraq. Its stated purposes are to disarm Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction (WMD), end Saddam Hussein’s regime and free the Iraqi people from a disreputable totalitarian.20 Roughly five years after the initial invasion, the Center for Public Integrity reports that senior Bush administration officials made “935 false statements” in the two years after Sept. 11, 2001, about the extent of the national security threat posed by Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. In retrospect, the center found, the Iraqi regime never possessed WMD and until 2003 did not have any viable ties to al-Qaeda.21


"Mission Accomplished"

May 1, 2003

President Bush delivers a speech aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln prematurely declaring the end to major combat operations in Iraq. In the background, a triumphant banner declares “Mission Accomplished.”23


Ambassador Wilson Op-Ed

July 6, 2003

An op-ed by former ambassador Joseph Wilson in The New York Times, “What I Didn’t Find in Africa,” rebuffs President Bush’s claim in his State of the Union address that Iraq had sought significant quantities of uranium from Africa.24


Valerie Plame Outed

July 14, 2003

One week after Wilson’s op-ed is published, conservative columnist Robert Novak reveals in a syndicated column that Wilson’s wife, Valerie Plame, is a CIA operative.25 The revelation effectively ends Plame’s career as a covert operative and risks her security and that of those who worked with her. The Justice Department launches an investigation, which ultimately determines that the vice president’s chief of staff, I. Lewis “Scooter” Libby, was one of the most senior members of the Bush administration responsible for leaking the information.26


"Windfalls of War"

October 30, 2003

The Center for Public Integrity releases a major report, “Windfalls of War,” revealing which American companies have received the most taxpayer money from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Vice President Cheney’s former company Halliburton and its subsidiary KBR received by far the most lucrative federal contracts.27


2004

Abu Ghraib Abuse

January 13, 2004

Sgt. Joseph M. Darby, an Army reservist, gives photos documenting abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq to the Army’s Criminal Investigation Command.


Clarke Criticism

March 21, 2004

In an interview on CBS’ “60 Minutes,” former counterterrorism czar Richard Clarke accuses the Bush administration of ignoring the growing threat of terrorism before 9/11 and focusing too much on Iraq instead of al-Qaeda after the attacks.28


Abu Ghraib Stories

April 28, 2004

CBS’ “60 Minutes II” airs a story about U.S. soldiers abusing and torturing Iraqi inmates housed at Abu Ghraib.29 Two days later, The New Yorker publishes an article by Seymour Hersh about sadistic and criminal abuses at Abu Ghraib.30


Guantanamo Ruling

June 28, 2004

The Supreme Court rules that detainees being held at Guantanamo Bay have the right to challenge their detention in federal court.31


Commission Report

July 22, 2004

The 9/11 Commission issues its final report. Much of the blame for the attacks is placed on the CIA and FBI for failing to anticipate or prevent them. The commission confirms a 2002 CBS report that the title of the president’s August 6, 2001, intelligence briefing was “Bin Laden Determined to Strike in U.S.” 32 Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice had testified before the commission that the briefing did not warn of attacks in the U.S., adding, “It was historical information based on old reporting.”


Bush Reelected

November 2, 2004

President Bush is re-elected, defeating the Democratic nominee, Sen. John Kerry of Massachusetts.


2005

Second Bush Inauguration

January 20, 2005

Bush is sworn in for a second term.


Iraqi Elections

January 30, 2005

Elections are held in Iraq.


New Attorney General

February 3, 2005

Alberto Gonzalez is sworn in as the new U.S. attorney general.


Al Qahtani Abuse

June 12, 2005

Time magazine reports that Mohammed al-Qahtani, the so-called 20th Sept. 11 hijacker, was tortured during his time at Guantanamo Bay.34 Four years later, a top Bush administration official confirms that Qahtani was abused,35 adding further doubts over the incarceration and interrogation methods being used by the United States.


Greenhouse Fired

August 29, 2005

The Washington Post reports that a high-level contracting official, Bunnatine H. Greenhouse, who had publicly criticized the Pentagon’s decision to award Halliburton a no-bid contract, was removed from her job. She subsequently sues and on July 25, 2011, a U.S. District Court judge awards her $970,000 for lost wages, compensatory damages and attorney fees.36


Secret Prisons

November 2, 2005

Related Video: Uncovering CIA Prisons

Dana Priest reports in The Washington Post that the CIA is hiding and interrogating al-Qaeda terror suspects in a secret prison system in as many as eight countries.33 Considering the abuses at Abu Ghraib, many are concerned about possible torture and abuse that could be occurring at these secret prisons.


NSA Surveillance

December 15, 2005

ames Risen and Eric Lichtblau report in The New York Times that President Bush secretly authorized the National Security Agency to conduct surveillance on U.S. citizens. The newspaper was asked repeatedly by the White House not to publish the story, and, in fact, the article’s publication was delayed by the Times for approximately a year.


2006

No Torture

September 6, 2006

Related Video: Stress and Duress

President Bush acknowledges the existence of secret CIA prisons outside the United States. He also states, “I want to be absolutely clear with our people and the world: The United States does not torture. It’s against our laws, and it’s against our values. I have not authorized it, and I will not authorize it.”37


Saddam Executed

December 30, 2006

Saddam Hussein is executed. He had been convicted of crimes against humanity by an Iraqi tribunal in the deaths of 148 Iraqi Shi’a in 1982, in retaliation for an assassination attempt against him.


2007

The Surge

January 10, 2007

President Bush announces a “troop surge” in Iraq, and the deployment of an additional 30,000 U.S. troops.38


CIA Black Sites

August 6, 2007

Jane Mayer reports in The New Yorker on the CIA’s “black sites” and the abuse and psychological torture suffered by terror suspects. While the methods often get suspects to talk, the article cites CIA officials as doubtful of the reliability of the information obtained. The article quotes an expert on the CIA’s practices in coercing suspects to talk as saying, “after the Cold War we put away those tools. There was bipartisan reform. We backed away from those dark days. Then, under the pressure of the war on terror, they didn’t just bring back the old psychological techniques – they perfected them.”39


"Enhanced Techniques"

October 4, 2007

Related Video: Reporting Torture

The New York Times reports that despite the criticism and dubious legality of the methods being used to question terror suspects, President Bush had signed an executive order in July 2006 authorizing the use of “enhanced interrogation techniques.”40


Blackwater

November 14, 2007

An FBI investigation of the military contractor Blackwater and the shooting of 17 Iraqi civilians finds that at least 14 of the shootings were unjustified and “violated deadly-force rules in effect for security contractors in Iraq.”41


CIA Tapes

December 6, 2007

The CIA admits that in 2005 it destroyed two tapes documenting the interrogation of prisoners, including suspected al-Qaeda leader Abu Zubaydah. The New York Times reports that part of the reason they were destroyed was that “officers were concerned that tapes documenting controversial interrogation methods could expose agency officials to greater risk of legal jeopardy.”42


2008

Pentagon "Independent" Analysts

April 20, 2008

David Barstow of The New York Times reports that the Pentagon had quietly recruited and was paying 75 retired military officers to be “independent” radio and television analysts. They were secretly coached about how to make the public case for war in Iraq on the air, and many of them also had significant, undisclosed financial ties to defense companies that were benefiting from the policies they were “analyzing.” The story is based on 8,000 pages of Department of Defense records obtained under the Freedom of Information Act.43


Obama Elected

November 4, 2008

Sen. Barack Obama, D-Ill., is elected president, garnering 365 electoral votes to 173 for Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz. Obama wins several states – such as Virginia, North Carolina and Indiana – once thought to be Republican strongholds.


Barstow Report

November 30, 2008

David Barstow reports in The New York Times that retired general Barry R. McCaffrey may have used his job as a military analyst for NBC News to promote a view of the Iraq war that was advantageous both to the defense contractors he consulted for and the Pentagon. This and his other related articles win Barstow the Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting in 2009.44


Shoe-Throwing

December 15, 2008

On a visit to Baghdad by President Bush, an Iraqi journalist hurls his shoe, an act of extreme disrespect in Iraq, at the president during a news conference.45


2009

Obama Inauguration

January 20, 2009

Barack Obama is sworn in as the 44th president and as the first African American president in American history. He strives to stabilize the economy and pass a comprehensive health care package while simultaneously de-escalating the war in Iraq and boosting troop levels in Afghanistan by 30,000 service members.46


Executive Orders

January 22, 2009

President Obama issues three executive orders. The first is an order to close the Guantanamo Bay detention facility within a year, the second bans torture and requires the Army Field Manual be used for all interrogations, and the third orders creation of an interagency task force to review all detention and interrogation procedures.47 The president later signs an order barring the use of funds to transfer prisoners from Guantanamo to the United States or other foreign countries.48 As of the publication of this timeline, terror suspects are still being held there.


Halliburton Settlement

January 27, 2009

Halliburton agrees to pay a $559 million settlement to the Department of Justice and the Securities and Exchange Commission. The settlement stems from charges filed against the company alleging that its former subsidiary KBR violated anti-bribery laws by paying kickbacks to Nigerian officials.49


Iraqi Handover

June 30, 2009

The U.S. officially hands over to Iraqi forces formal control of security in urban areas of the country.50


Afghan Surge

December 2, 2009

President Obama announces that he has approved a surge of 30,000 troops to be sent to Afghanistan, adding to the 17,000 additional troops sent nine months earlier.51


2010

Casualty Count

March 16, 2010

Related Video: Brokers of Truth

The count of deceased U.S. servicemen and women in Iraq stands at 4,369; in Afghanistan, Operation Enduring Freedom claims 1,009 American lives.52


WikiLeaks Video

April 5, 2010

WikiLeaks, an online organization devoted to publishing secret government and corporate information, posts a video that appears to show the U.S. Army bombing unarmed Iraqi civilians.53 The footage sparks outrage in the U.S., although some viewers question whether it was edited in a manipulative way.54


Another No-Bid Contract

May 5, 2010

Bloomberg News reports that contractor KBR has again been awarded a no-bid contract by the Army, this one worth as much as $568 million. The news comes on the same day that the Justice Department announces it intends to pursue another lawsuit against the company accusing it of taking kickbacks.55


Manning Arrest

May 26, 2010

Federal officials arrest Pfc. Bradley Manning.56 He is charged with giving WikiLeaks hundreds of classified documents. It is later revealed that military jailers in Quantico, Va., force Manning to sleep naked, a move his lawyer describes as “punitive.”57


"Top Secret America"

July 19, 2010

The Washington Post begins publishing “Top Secret America,” a four-part series of articles by Dana Priest and William Arkin that reveals that nearly a decade after 9/11, roughly 854,000 people hold top secret clearances and that 1,271 government organizations and 1,931 private companies “work on programs related to counterterrorism, homeland security and intelligence in about 10,000 locations across the United States.” The series is expanded into a book and PBS “Frontline” documentary.59


WikiLeaks Documents

July 25, 2010

WikiLeaks releases 77,000 classified documents concerning the war in Afghanistan; some of the documents include accounts of civilian casualties.60 61 WikiLeaks collaborates with The New York Times, The Guardian and Der Spiegel to publish the documents.


Iraq Pullout

August 19, 2010

The last U.S. combat troops withdraw from Iraq, leaving around 50,000 troops to serve in advisory roles.58


More Documents

October 22, 2010

WikiLeaks releases nearly 400,000 more classified documents, this time documenting the war in Iraq. According to the BBC, “The ‘war logs’ suggest evidence of torture was ignored, and detail the deaths of thousands of Iraqi civilians.”62


WikiLeaks' Assange Arrested

December 7, 2010

Julian Assange, the Australian founder of WikiLeaks, is jailed in London on charges that he committed “rape, sexual molestation and unlawful coercion” while in Sweden. Sweden requests his extradition.63 Assange is released on $315,000 bail nine days later.64


Guantanamo Vote

December 22, 2010

Congress votes to impose strict restrictions on how and where detainees are transferred out of Guantanamo Bay.65


2011

Guantanamo Stays Open

January 20, 2011

After Congress blocks plans to bring Guantanamo Bay detainees to the U.S. to be tried, the Obama administration abandons its plans to close the detention center and approves plans to resume military tribunals.66


Bin Laden Killed

May 1, 2011

In a late night speech, President Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, mastermind of the attacks on 9/11, was killed by Navy SEALs during a raid on his compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan.67



Recommended References

Books

  • Bamford, James. A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of America's Intelligence Agencies. New York: Doubleday, 2004.
  • Blix, Hans. Disarming Iraq: The former director of the U.N. Inspection Commission gives his account of the search for weapons of mass destruction and the events leading up to America’s invasion and occupation of Iraq. New York: Pantheon, 2004.
  • Bonin, Richard. Arrows of the Night: Ahmad Chalabi’s Long Journey to Triumph in Iraq. New York: Doubleday, 2011.
  • Borjesson, Kristina, ed. Feet to the Fire: The Media After 9/11: Top Journalists Speak Out. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005.
  • Bremer III, L. Paul. My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
  • Bush, George W. Decision Points. New York: Crown, 2010.
  • Carroll, James. Crusade: Chronicles of an Unjust War. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004.
  • Cheney, Dick. In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir. New York: Threshold Editions, 2011.
  • Clarke, Richard A. Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror. New York: Free Press, 2004.
  • Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2011. New York: Penguin Press HC, 2004. ^
  • Coll, Steve. The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century. New York: Penguin Press HC, 2008.
  • Draper, Robert. Dead Certain: The Presidency of George W. Bush. New York: Free Press, 2007.
  • Drogin, Bob. Curveball: Spies, Lies, and the Con Man Who Caused a War. New York: Random House, 2007.
  • Drumheller, Tyler. On The Brink: An Insider's Account of How the White House Compromised American Intelligence. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2006.
  • Galbraith, Peter. The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War Without End. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
  • Gellman, Barton. Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. New York: Penguin Press HC, 2008.
  • Graham, Bob. Intelligence Matters: The CIA, the FBI, Saudi Arabia, and the Failure of America’s War on Terror. New York: Random House, 2004.
  • Gordon, Michael R., and Bernard E. Trainor. Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq. New York: Pantheon, 2006.
  • Hersh, Seymour. Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib. HarperCollins, 2004.
  • Isikoff, Michael, and David Corn. Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2007.
  • Kean, Thomas H., and Lee H. Hamilton. Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.
  • Kessler, Ronald. The Terrorist Watch: Inside the Desperate Race to Stop the Next Attack. New York: Crown Forum, 2007.
  • Mayer, Jane. The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals. New York: Doubleday, 2008.
  • McKelvey, Tara. Monstering: Inside America’s Policy of Secret Interrogations and Torture in the Terror War. New York: Basic Books, 2007.
  • Meyer, Christopher. DC Confidential: The Controversial Memoirs of Britain's Ambassador to the U.S. at the Time of 9/11 and the Run-up to the Iraq War. London: Phoenix/Orion, 2006.
  • Packer, George. The Assassins’ Gate: America in Iraq. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.#
  • Priest, Dana, and William Arkin. Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2011.
  • Rice, Condoleezza. No Higher Honor: A Memoir of My Years In Washington. New York: Crown, 2011.
  • Rich, Frank. The Greatest Story Ever Sold: The Decline and Fall of Truth from 9/11 to Katrina. New York: Penguin, 2006.
  • Ricks, Thomas E. Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. New York: Penguin, 2006.#
  • Risen, James. State of War: The Secret History of the CIA and the Bush Administration. New York: Free Press, 2006.
  • Rove, Karl. Courage and Consequence: My Life as a Conservative in the Fight. New York: Threshold Editions, 2010.
  • Rumsfeld, Donald. Known and Unknown: A Memoir. New York: Sentinel HC, 2011.
  • Suskind, Ron. The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America’s Pursuit of Its Enemies Since 9/11. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
  • Tenet, George. At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.
  • Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. New York: Doubleday, 2007.
  • Whitney, Craig R. The WMD Mirage: Iraq’s Decade of Deception and America’s False Premise for War. New York: PublicAffairs, 2005.
  • Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
  • Woodward, Bob. Plan of Attack. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.
  • Woodward, Bob. State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
  • Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. ^
  • Yoo, John. Crisis and Command: A History of Executive Power from George Washington to George W. Bush. New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2010.

Online

Documentaries

  • 9/11. Dir. James Hanlon and Rob Klug. CBS, 2002. * **
  • To Iraq and Back: Bob Woodruff Reports. Prod. Keith Summa and Gabrielle Tenenbaum. ABC, 2007.**
  • Beneath the Veil. Prod. Cassian Harrison. CNN, Channel 4, 2001.**
  • Bush’s War. Prod. Michael Kirk. PBS, “Frontline,” 2008.*
  • Buying the War. Prod. Kathleen Hughes. PBS, “Bill Moyers Journal,” 2007.
  • Top Secret America. Prod. Michael Kirk. PBS, “Frontline,” 2011.
  • Torturing Democracy. Prod. Sherry Jones. PBS, “Bill Moyers Journal,” 2009.

*Emmy Award winner
**Peabody Award winner
^Pulitzer Prize winner
#Pulitzer Prize finalist

Endnotes